There is no one-size-fits-all solution for knowledge transfer, because not every transfer context is the same. However we can look at four main classes or types of knowledge transfer, by looking at the dimensions of TIME and LOCATION.
OTJ (On The Job) Transfer
The transfer of knowledge between people or teams who are co-located - doing the same sort of work at the same time in the same place - can be done on the job. Knowledge can be transferred through embedding processes like mentoring, coaching, after action reviews, as well as through numerous informal conversations.
The transfer of knowledge within a series of projects in the same location, one after the other (and often with the same team) is called serial transfer. Much serial transfer can be accomplished by the transfer of project plans, designs, basis of design documents, and so on, as well as by transferring lessons learned, and transferring core team members. Project knowledge handover meetings can also be useful - sometimes known as baton-passing. Knowledge transfer between individuals working in the same place but at different times is accomplished by personal knowledge handover - a planned set of conversations, and compilation of a set of key documents, contacts, lessons and tips and hints.
The transfer of knowledge between a series of projects running simultaneously but in different locations, or between many individuals doing the same work in different parts of the business, is called parallel transfer. This can rely heavily on face-to-face activities such as peer assist, and knowledge visits, as well as real-time transfer of knowledge through communities of practice, online forums and enterprise social media. Because operations are simultaneous and continuous, much knowledge can remain tacit.
The transfer of knowledge between projects running in different times and different places, or from person to person separated by time and distance, is called far transfer (a term coined by Nancy Dixon). Far transfer cannot rely on real-time conversations, or on simply transferring project plans, as the next project may take place in a completely different country in several years time. Knowledge will need to be transferred in written form as a knowledge asset, or as a series of Lessons Learned.
I am a director for Knoco, the international firm of knowledge management consultants, offering a range of knowledge management services, including knowledge management strategy, knowledge management framework development, and knowledge management implementation services.
I also have an interest in Lessons Learned